Learning mnemonic

a device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory




  • Literary art and creative writing forms like novels short stories, poetry plays, essays reports/ articles
  • Fiction/ non fiction
  • Explanation / persuasive text

Narrative ( story, account, tale)

Exposition (argument, explanation, discussion)

Descriptive/critical response

Report (statements)

Instructional procedure




Each text type has language elements suited to that form. Analyse the use of

  • General nouns
  • Action verbs
  • Passive voice
  • Modality (revealing writers viewpoint)
  • First, second, or the third person
  • Dialogue
  • Relations (is, we, have),
  • Tense
  • Facts
  • Descriptive language,
  • Technical/ specific terms
  • Emotive language

Each text type uses structural elements like

  • Paragraph  topics sentences chapters  \stanzas/ acts
  • Information  or factual references to time a place a culture
  • Figurative language- metaphor personification, simile, hyperbole , alliteration, rhyme, etc


Who is the author? What were the author’s literary practices’?
What types of authors created the text?
  • Professional/non-professional
  • Poet, novelist, satirist, short story writer, librettist, lyricist, playwright, screenwriter
What was their writing method?

Typically they write alone, struggle to express ideas adequately, select the best genre and words for their ideas and write in an idiosyncratic style.

They write using

  • Observation and knowledge of the human condition
  • Some write to develop a skill or own ideas or new language

Authorship= some writers fake their names to make a brand or disguise the gender eg some women writers used an alias


identify the primary and secondary purpose or function of the text, it is usually to

  • communicate ideas,
  • contribute cultural content to society


Secondary purpose is usually to achieve an emotional and sensory effect.

For example

  • Poetic use of language exploiting parts of words, rhymes , alliteration, metaphor or simile
  • Novelists  use universal human experiences as themes in fiction, characters are invented and situated in narrative plots that seem realistic and entertain through techniques of irony , suspence , drama tragedy or comedy
  • Satirists  use and play with words to ridicule problems in society their intent on exposing stupidity, focussing on power relationships or human character faults.

Performative purpose texts  are used in plays or musicals productions

The purpose of Playwrite’s text is not to be read by a single reader but viewed as performed on stage by actors, and showing the human reaction to situations

  • driven by dialogue,
  • physical acting ,
  • body language
  • A purpose of a text may tell an audience a story + inform their morality  and ethics
  • The audience often reinterprets writers’ revisions of pre-existing stories.
  • A purpose of a Text is to take readers on a journey= like limericks, or thrillers or even to inform and move the reader from nieve to sophisticated knowing.
  • texts take a reader on a journey through times and places.
  • Short story works of fiction purpose are to be read quickly.
  • Texts may have the function to influence thinking through sharing knowledge and experience= bring wisdom to public attention or consequences of behaviour like injustice, predjuce, neglect, courage, sacrifice , trust

Boagraphers use stories of others lives transfer a valueable story get paid, to teach

Critic writers evaluate other texts  measuring relevance or success their purpose

Critics use cultural theories to shape the style writing inteneded for different audiences.

Text may translate= writers meanings, intentions and reveal equivalences in ideas or values


What are the circumstances surrounding the text?

Where does the text exist in time and place when it was created and how has the text changed through changing times place sand audiences

Eg literary genre

Controversy scandals, censorship, discrediting of works, awards, sales, remade, intertextual links, series etc


Opposite to synthesis

= pull a part. Examine the parts to uncover interrelationships- similarities and differences

Pull apart to examine cause and effect relationships

Thus providing knowledge to help problem solving / decision making

Criticisms, biographies and journalism or reoportage


Playwrites , poets re-work other texts especially ancient greek poets and playwrites

Use language with

Sarcasm irony hyperbole in prose

Plays driven by spoken dialogue and body language of characters,

Poets may exclude language in their text or rhyme or illiterate or onomato


The use of language that apeals to the 5 sense

olfactory imagery

Tactile imagery

Visual imagery

Auditory imagery

Gustatory imagery

These relate to description sthat relateto the senses, like texts provokes a sense of smell, taste, touch, hearing seeing etc


What does the text do to convey meaning?



= author uses patterns of conetnt and language to shape the portrayal of the topic and the relationships between these patterns convey, evoke , suggest lead invite meaning with r eader

Readers decode signals and the objects in the world they signify or refer or point towards

Adjectives convey layers of meaning

Reading is an interactive processthat involves thinking by the reader, questioning,discussing, re-reading and responding personally.

Interpretation is an act of understanding text.translating text, finding an equivanlent

Making meaning is a psychological act, process of how to construe, or make sense, or relevant experience of word signs and what the signs refer or point to, usually meanings are about life events, relationships or intrapersonal inner self



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