alliteration                        use of the same consonant at the beginning of each word
anachronism locating something at a time when it couldn’t have existed
flashback 1.     a transition in a story to an earlier event or scene


foreshadowing 1.     the act of providing vague advance indications


hyperbole 1.     extravagant exaggeration


imagery                                the ability to form mental pictures of things or events
irony                             incongruity between what might be expected and what occurs
metaphor and simile                  a figure of speech that suggests a non-literal similarity

a figure of speech expressing a resemblance between things

onomatopoeia using words that imitate the sound they denote
paradox Aka duality a classification into two opposed parts or subclasses
personification attributing human characteristics to abstract ideas
satire                    witty language used to convey insults or scorn
soliloquy speech you make to yourself
symbolism something visible that represents something invisible
tone the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note
Characterization the act of describing essential features


Connotation an idea that is implied or suggested


Denotation the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression


Drama a work intended for performance by actors on a stage


Epic 1.     a long narrative poem telling of a hero’s deeds


Exposition a collection of things for public display
Fiction 1.     a literary work based on the imagination


Figure of speech 1.    language used in a figurative or nonliteral sense


Meter                                 a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in verse
Non fictiction                         prose writing that is not formed by the imagination
persuasion communication intended to induce belief or action
Poetry                   literature in metrical form
Quatrain a stanza of four lines
Couplet a stanza consisting of two successive lines of verse
Rhythm                  alternation of stressed and unstressed elements in speech
Setting the physical position of something
Sonnet a verse form of 14 lines with a fixed rhyme scheme
Speaker someone who expresses in language

The voice that is talking to us in a poem.


Stanza a fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem
Stress the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note
Didactic instructive, especially excessively

didactic literature: writing that aims primarily to teach (parables)


Iambic pentameter Unstressed and stressed syllables in words5 iambs in a line of poetry used in shakespearsa plays
Dramatic irony
allusion passing reference or indirect mention
Blanked verse 1.     unrhymed poetry, usually in iambic pentameter



9 literae elements in every text

language All literature is written in a recognizable language, since one of literature’s main goals is sharing ideas, concepts, and stories with a larger audience.
plot The plot of a work is defined as the sequence of events that occurs from the first line to the last. In other words, the plot is what happens in a story.

All literature has a plot of some kind. Most long-form literature, like a novel or a play, follows a pretty typical plot structure, also known as a plot arc. This type of plot has six elements:

Beginning introduction exposition


rising action


falling action


mood The mood of a piece of literature is defined as the emotion or feeling that readers get from reading the words on a page. So if you’ve ever read something that’s made you feel tense, scared, or even happy…you’ve experienced mood firsthand!
setting Setting is defined simply as the time and location in which the story takes place. The setting of a work is important because it helps convey important information about the world that impact other literary elements, like plot and theme. 
theme                     All literary works have themes, or central messages, that authors are trying to convey. Sometimes theme is described as the main idea of a work…but more accurately, themes are any ideas that appear repeatedly throughout a text.
point of view                                                                        Point of view is the position of the narrator in relationship to the plot of a piece of literature. In other words, point of view is the perspective from which the story is told.

First person: This is told by one of the characters of the story from their perspective.

Second person: second-person point of view happens when the audience is made a character in the story. In this instance, the narrator uses second person pronouns, like “you” and “your.” If you ever get confused, just remember that “Choose Your Own Adventure” books use second person.

Third person limited: this is when the narrator is removed from the story and tells it from an outside perspective. To do this, the narrator uses pronouns like “he,” “she,” and “they” to refer to the characters in the story. Point of view is an important literary element for two reasons. First, it helps us better understand the characters in a story. For example, a first person point of view lets readers get to know the main character in detail, since they experience the main character’s thoughts, feelings, and actions.

narrator V the narrator is the person who’s telling the story. All literature has a narrator, even if that narrator isn’t named or an active part of the plot.
conflict all literature has some sort of plot—that means conflict is a literary element, too. A conflict is the central struggle that motivates the characters and leads to a work’s climax. Generally, conflict occurs between the protagonist, or hero, and the antagonist, or villain…but it can also exist between secondary characters, man and nature, social structures, or even between the hero and his own mind.
characters                           A piece of literature has to have at least one character, which can be a person, an object, or an animal. he protagonist of a work is its main character. 

The plot circles around this person or object, and they are central to solving the conflict of the story.

Antagonists, on the other hand, are the characters that oppose the protagonist in some way. (This opposition is what causes the conflict of the story!) There can be multiple antagonists in a story, though usually there’s one major character, animal, or object that continues to impede the protagonist’s progress.


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